عنوان مقاله [English]
The country’s lands in a large (major) land division are divided into two parts, national lands and excluded lands, which in the implementation of the law of nationalization, sometimes the excluded lands are detected as national lands and then delegated (disposed) to third parties for exploitation to create service, industrial and agricultural projects. It is obvious that the detection of national lands like other human activities is a process mixed with human error and in fact, the main question of this research is who is liable for compensating the losses of the executors of the delegated (disposal) projects, which occurs due to errors and mistakes in the nationalization of the excluded lands? Is the government liable with the general description of the state, or are the agents of the state, i.e., the executive agencies, such as the verifying authority or the delegating authority liable, or are the government’s agents, i.e., relevant natural persons in the national lands detection process such as the distinguisher or forester, liable for compensation or not a particular person is not liable? This article first studies the process of verifying national lands and then investigates wrongful delegation, the liability of the relevant authorities to compensate for the damages, and also, studies the liability for the compensation caused by fault in detecting national lands from the perspective of civil law and special legislation. The result of this research, which is written in an analytical-descriptive method, is that basically, the government or government entities, i.e., the verifying authority and the delegating authority for not having personal and administrative fault and that the detection and delegation of national lands are sovereign acts (jobs), are not liable for compensating the losses of the executor of the delegated project and the transfer authority is only obliged to restitute the price or rent, and the government is not liable for compensations such as devaluation of money and investment costs. Finally, some solutions have been proposed to prevent the consequences of the delegation of excluded lands.