نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه حقوق، واحد نجفآباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجفآباد، ایران
2 دانشیار، گروه حقوق، واحد نجفآباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجفآباد، ایران
3 استادیار، گروه حقوق، واحد نجفآباد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، نجفآباد، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Money creation (money issuance) is one of the most important economic phenomena that leaves many effects on the economy. In order to grant loans to bank customers, money or credit based on which banks create credit from “nothing” in the account of the loan applicant is created. Although this phenomenon has also supporters, but this same group also admits and acknowledges the destructive economic effects of money creation. Its most important effects include economic instability, unbridled inflation, discrimination and violation of justice. This issue can be considered as a matter of concern affecting the Islamic society because there are few people who have not applied for a loan from banks. This phenomenon from a jurisprudential point of view can be considered as an unlawful ownership (in Arabic: أکْل المال بِالْباطِل, unjust enrichment); because, the bank acquires property (tries to make money) instead of “nothing”. On the other hand, the prohibition of the abuse of the right, which is based on the evidence of the rule of prohibition of detriment (in Arabic: لا ضَرَرَ, principle of harm), implies the prohibition of the creation of money. Banks have the right to loan their customers money and this right is considered by law and Sharia (Arabic: شریعة, Romanized: sharīʿa, religious law) for them, but they have made this right an excuse for their profiteering (mercantilism, trade) and causing harm (damnification) to the whole society, which is ruled to illegitimacy on the basis of the evidence of prohibiting the abuse of the right and principle of harm. It should be finally noted that the criterion stated in some ḥadīth (pl. aḥādīth, literally means talk or discourse, narrations) for the unlawfulness of usury, which is the earning of profit without anything in return (equivalent), is equally true about the creation of money, and it is possible to generalize the prohibition of usury by conclusive rectification of the effective cause (Arabic: تنقیح المناط).